Jan 19, 2014

Mac Certification Notes

These are some of the notes I took during my Mac Certification... Not in any order, really, and pretty rough. But, if they help someone, then it is worth checking out!

Mac OS X Training

MacTracker - 3rd party app lists all info about apple spec database, codename for each computer/os

File Vault 2 - Installation section and privacy/security
-- In old versions, only home folders were encrypted. Option to encrypt virtual memory.
-- In FileVault 2, the entire boot volume is encrypted. Time Machine updates every hour.
-- Turn off legacy file vault, decrypt user's files, then set up file vault 2
-- FV2 is full volume encryption (XTS-AES 128 encryption)
-- Journaled, encrypted
-- Setup through Security and privacy, encrypts in background
-- users have to be added into FV2 or they will be locked out of the drive
---- Owner encrypts hard drive, must enable fv2 for each user
---- Only admins can encrypt the drive
---- You can enable users after the drive is encrypted
-- encryption key - New users can be added after the fact
--- Write it, print it. If you forget key, blow away volume and start over (Do not store ON the machine!)
--- Can store the key with Apple
-- Recovery HD is required
-- Cannot have FV2 on a RAIDED setup
-- Safe Sleep Mode - sleep mode before battery dies. RAM saved to drive. Safe Sleep requires FV2 password
-- Use recovery key after 3 failed logins per user
-- You would want to encrypt the TimeMachine backup as well

-- Apps open where they left off, can turn off in System Prefs > General
-- Install from App Store, Signed and auto updates via AppleID
-- Simple items can be dragged into Applications Folder, Complex items require Installer apps
-- Recommend getting from MAc App Store
-- Native MacOS X - No distinction between Intel and Universal (both Intel and PowerPC Code)
-- PowerPC apps are NOT supported, OSX 10.8 lacks Rosetta
-- Supports Java through manual install
-- Unix and X11 (based on FreeBSD), X11 replaced by XQuartz, Free apps: macports.org, macosforge.org
---- AppleJack runs from command line in Single-User mode. Maintenance tool. free.

Application and Process Security
-- App sandboxing (You sure you want to run?)
-- Quarantine
--- Disk Images, Installers, Apps, Scripts, script.command (protection asks 'are you sure to run?')

-- only allows apps from the app store
-- can relax those settings to apps+signed or anywhere
-- Admin can bypass via contextual menu (right-click/control-click)

Software Removal
-- Most items can be dragged to trash out of the Applications folder
-- Mac Store Apps can be removed via LaunchPad
-- Very Rarely is an uninstaller needed

App Management and Troubleshooting
-- Most are 64-bit mode, Get Info and can force to open in 32-bit mode (for plug-ins, usually)
-- System Prefs can set app to auto switch
Preference Files
-- ~Library/Preferences/appname
-- Can move the .plist out of prefs folder (quit app, move plist, apps should create new prefs file)
-- Safari - reset Safari, delete cookies, then delete prefs if needed
-- Login as different user. Does problem still exist? If yes, most likely a pref file issue
-- Reinstall app to replace app support files
-- ignore 'lock file' files, that is a Time Machine side-effect

Apple Menu > System Info about apps
-- Not all apps are in Apps folder

Activity Monitor
-- Show running apps at that time
-- can force quit any running process
--- show all process, %cpu, look for something using a lot of cpu, then troubleshoot app
-- mdns (bonjour) do not quit
-- mdworker (spotlight) do not quit

Can Force Quit apps from Finder
-- Force Quit under Apple Menu
-- Control-Click on app in dock and choose Force Quit
-- Command-Option-Esc = Force Quit *know for exam*

Then move preference file and relaunch. Do not delete until you are sure the problem is solved.

Send crash report to Apple to help tweak issues

Document Troubleshooting
-- Try new/different doc in same app
-- Try diff app to open the document
-- Verify font resources (logout/log back in, relaunch app with same doc)
-- Try diff user account (quick fix, try first)

PDFPen (edit PDFs and lock the edit)

App troubleshooting
-- Is app OS X compatible?
-- Remove app prefs
-- Repair permissions via disk utility
-- delete temp files
-- reinstall app and support files

System Prefs
-- Spotlight fine tuning
--- Speed up by turning off certain indexing
--- Set order for results
--- Privacy - drag into privacy window to prevent showing up in spotlight
--- Reindex - drag hard drive into privacy, then drag it back out
--- .spotlight-v100 file can be (sudo rm)
-- Notifications
--- Adjust notifications sidebar
--- two-finger slide from right side (off trackpad) toward left
--- System-wide alerts, located on right side
-- Third-party items show at bottom of sys prefs
-- Language and Text - show character viewer for optional characters, copy/pste into doc
-- Keyboard viewer will show you symbols (shift-option-K is apple logo), Option-6 Subsection,
-- Displays - Color LCD - adjust color, scaling, etc, auto-adjust brightness
-- Energy Saver Settings
--- Turn off Hard Drive sleeping
--- Wake for wi-fi access
--- Power Nap - downloads etc when computer sleeping
-- Buetooth Settings
--- Turn on BT
--- Check batteries, make sure in range
-- Trackpad
--- Scroll and Zoom
---- Natural is like iPad, turn off to make it act like a mouse

-- Private non-routable 10.x.x.x, 192,168.x.x, 172.x.x.x
-- Built-in Ports (ethernet, wi-fi)
-- Status - Green active w/ip (link+protocol), Yellow IP (link-no protocol) not connected, Red down (no lnk-no protocol), grey disabled
-- Check ip (169.254.x.x = self-assigned) under Advanced - does IP make sense.
-- Check DNS
-- Check WINS, 802.1x, Proxies
-- MAC Address under Advanced settings
-- Virtual/Physical Ports
--- + to add interface
----- VPN, PPOE, 6 to 4 - virtual
----- Bluetooth DUN/PAN, Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Firewire
-- Action Menu, set service order, drag order services

Create Network Locations to provide different setups based on network
-- Make changes and save. Ex: Ethernet-only with wi-fi disabled
-- Locations are "Network Profiles"
-- Choose location from Apple Menu > Locations

Network Utility in Utilities Folder
-- en0 (ethernet) vs en1 (wi-fi) (typically, if unit has ethernet and wi-fi)
-- en0 (ethernet 1), en1 (ethernet 2), en2 (wifi) in Server Pro
-- IP, Speed, Vendor
-- Ping by IP/name
-- Lookup, Traceroute
-- Portscan

Assist Me - Network Diagnostics - Walk through testing
(Network Setup Assistant) - Setup Wizard

smb:// server name or IP for Windows
afp:// apple server (assumed unless different)
http:// (webdav)
or browse

Print and Scan
-- Does printer show up? No? MDNS might be off in printer, or BOnjour turned off. Print config, plug in IP for printer
-- Can share scanners and printers

Screen Sharing - share screen/rdp over local network only (maybe with public IP)
Internet Sharing - Share internet connection

AirDrop - Share files and folders, Wireless peer-to-peer without wifi connection
Older Macs do no support AirDrop (wifi card issue) Mid2009+ works
Secure, no settings required, must agree to receive. Wifi must be on.

Mail connection doctor
-- Check connection to mail
-- Double-click problem item to check settings/ports/etc
-- Show Detail, Quick check, and view all communication between client and mail server

Networking Firewall
-- Built-in OS X
-- Security and Privacy
--- Turn On
--- Options - not port-based, application based
--- Can allow signed apps automatically
--- Add apps, disable apps
--- Stealth mode - won't even respond to ping
--- KB Article to show which ports used by which apps TS1629

System Resources File Systems
--- Four Primary Folders - Applications, Library, System, Users
Resource search paths
- Looking font
--- Look in own Library folder
---- Local /Library library folder
---- Network library folder or network applications folder, if exists
--- Next /System/library folder

--- User, Main, Network


Time Machine
- Single-click built-in backup
- Automatically asks when plug in external drive
--- Not temp files and caches, trash, items defined by developers, log files
- option to encrypt the backup (saved to keychain)
- Cannot change schedule with Apple defaults
- Removes old items when backup destination is full
--Disable backups: Unplug local volume or Turn off Time machine.
- Backup to Mac OS X extended, server with time machine service on, time capsule wifi access point (GUID)
- NAS must support afp for time machine
- Can create exclusion lists under Options button

Restore from Time Machine
- Leverage Spotlight and Quicklook
- Restore from OS X Recovery and Migration Assistant

Local Snapshots
- Only for portables
- Hidden at /.MobileBackups
- Copied to backup destinations when available
- Gray timeline ticks indicate local backup
- Pink timeline indicate 'real' backup

Time Machine Backup Format
- VolumeName/Backups.backupdb/Computername/yyyy-mm-dd-hhmmss/ (KNOW THIS!!)
- Must be there. If customer moves it, Time Machine can't backup or creates a new backup taking up more space!
- Can manually copy any file out of a time machine snapshot
- large files that change often are problematic (outlook, vmware images)
- VolumeName/ComputerName.sparsebundle (the backup on the time capsule drive)

Time Machine Restore
- Enter Time Machine (from ™ menu)
- Find the file(s) you want to restore
- Grey is Local, Purple is External
- Restore: if has name sam, you have option to replace, keep both, keep original (one in place before restore)

Delete Backup
- Go to Time Machine
- Highlight item
- Gear - Delete Backup (just this one snapshot) or Delete All (from all snapshots)

- First backup takes a while
- USB3, Thunderbolt, Firewire faster
- Backups after major software update take longer
- Backups after deleting files for more space (reindex) take a while
- IO errors, backup failure - run Disk Utility - check cable!
- May have to reformat the drive if backup file is corrupt. If format fails, need new drive

Cannot backup to iCloud, iPods, etc.

External Disk plugged into a time capsule can be selected individually as separate drive

First Time Capsule backup should be ethernet, subsequent can be wi-fi

Peripherals and Printing
- Air Play - Only supported on certain machines, same wifi network, wifi turned on, 2nd gen or newer apple tv
- Peripheral USB, Firewire etc -
--- Power cycle peripheral, check cable, plug something else into port
--- System Information
---- Option-Click Apple = System Information
---- Go to USB
---- Look for errant peripheral - is it on usb bus? Current available/required enough power?
---- If not on bus, not enough power to device: cable, reseat, refresh the bus. Still not there? Bad device/bad usb in device
--- If on bus, and everything looks good, remove driver then add device again
--- Update drivers
-- If all is done and still cannot print (but can print from another computer), maybe printing system
-- Reset the CUPS for printing
---- Control-Click list of printers, reset printer system, requires admin rights (KNOW THIS!)
---- Option-Click the "-" can reset printer
- Flash drives/hard drives, check the disk utility, may need to repair or blow out partition. If I can't, bad drive

- integrated with the OS in 10.8
- tied to apple ID, can have different account for iCloud and for AppleID
- Turn on items to sync (mail, calendars, contacts, notes, etc)
- Turn off sync on OS X, removes locally but still in Cloud for other devices
- Photo Stream - 1000 photos per photo stream folder
-Back-to-Mac - access another mac remotely
- Find my Mac
- can buy additional storage
MEssages replaces iChat
- Accounts - iCloud, AOL, Yahoo, GoogleTalk, Jabbr (KNOW THIS), Bonjour
- add ways you can be contacted
- can do video messaging, mics, etc
- Connection Doctor in Messages (under Video)
--- Capabilities check for what's wrong - no mic, no video, etc

Troubleshooting Tools and Procedures
Safe Mode - shift key on power up, repair volume, delete font cache, delete kernel cache, turn off non-essential launch agents and daemons, disable login items and startup items.
Verbose mode - CommandV startup, watch process
Firmware password - know this!
Repair disk permissions - disk utility not user
Recovery HD - Command-R, or hold option for startup manager (shows all possible boots)
Software update - shows up in notifications if enabled. force check. all done via app store
T key on boot (Target disk mode)
Command-optionPR - nvram reset

Tools from utilities
- Activity Monitor
-- Process with user interface is app, without user interface is daemon
-- All process, Heiarchly - Process 0 is kernel, Process 1 is launchd
-- cpu activity, disk activity, memory, network

Hold D key on boot for apple hardware test, Command-D internet hardware test(core hardware)

- Installer Log, other logs (install.log)
- can be used for troubleshooting (fatal, error, etc)

Kernel Panics
- Must restart. Kernel locked up. Logged in console

Disk Utility

Create image using restore command
Burn disc with a disk image (iso files)


Network Utility

Quicktime 7 for older codecs (goes to utility folder)

Quicktime X current (applications folder)

System Info in utilities.

Terminal - following base instructions

single-user mode fsck command

Lots of questions on Recovery

Check sound settings to make sure speakers are balanced

Check your recording settings for mic, volume, etc

Can connect to PC's shared printer from Mac

Ppd describes features that can be used by Mac OS print system

Required kernel extensions load in safe boot

20130926 - Apple Cert Notes

 Warranty Work - Apple cert, Service acct w/apple (ssp/aaspp:VAR/Not in US)
Self-service - schools, in-house (at least 50 units, 5 yrs old or newer)
Parts only or parts and labor (300+ labor), work with apple rep once you sign up
GSX account - apple tech wokring for ssa, gsx admin
ID parts, order parts, manuals - Apple tech toolkit ($299)

Exams - 2 exams, online at home/office etc -  New products will have new product certs

Self-study iOS course and cert optional

Apple IT certs (standalone)
-- Mac integration basics integration w/ad
--Apple Cert Support Pro - in-depth
--ACTC in-depth

HT1159 KB Article - About This Mac, Click "Version" to see build #
--Need to make sure the build number matches iOS versions
--Video problems/black screen, wifi problems, can't hold bluetooth, will not start up
AST - Apple Service Tookit - server-based diagnostics
--Can't mix and match builds

-- Installing Mountain Lion
--- 10.6.8 or later
--- 2GB Memory
--- 8GB hard drive space
--- AppleID required for some features
--- Some features require compatible ISP
--- Check the spec list on pg 2/18 in spiral
--- Plug into AC power, run Update, Check for firmware updates, Verify Application compatibility, Backup data, Document critial settings (IP, wifi, etc)

Firmware updates:
-- About > More Info
-- HT1237 Firmware updates
-- Check the firmware to be sure; update as needed before upgrading

Partition Choices
-- Single
-- Multiple
-- OSX Extended (Journaled)
-- Data: Extended (Journaled)
-- Boot Camp: Fat32 or NTFS
---- Newer Macs only support Win7 (not XP)

Disk Utility - Utilities Folder and Recovery Partition

How to get Mountain Lion
-- App Store, Digital Download, 10.6.8 or later, Apple ID, Fast Internet Connection
-- OSX Pre-installed - anything after July 25, 2012, Serial Number used from Recovery
-- Physical install. After download, don't install and copy the file to media. Show package contents, esd.dmg grab that to desktop. Mount image, restore option. Mount esd as source, USB as target.
-- Volume purchase option available
-- NetRestore Deployment solutions

Install Mountain Lion
-- Select Drive/partitions
-- installer Log under "window" menu
-- Prevents automatic restart (manually restart)
-- Look for errors if something not installed correctly
-- accessible from Console afterward as well

-- Cant verify installer files
-- target system volume structure corrupt
-- hardware compat issue, maybe firmware
-- review installer log for errors
-- remove extra peripherals during install (printers, printers, thunderbolt, etc)

KB-TS3926 - Boot camp error

KB-HT4649 - OS X features not supported - RAIDed drives do not have Recovery Part. File Vault requires Recovery part.

Setup and Config

new apple id: @me.com or @icloud.com

System Prefs after install

Profiles, and Other settings

About this Mac
-- can determine type
-- Can check serial number (click version)
-- Support in upper right corner

Not every Mac running lion will run mtn lion

KB-HT5394 - Power Nap (which machines support)- Unit sleeps but still does mail check, calendar, notes, photo stream, locate mac, mdm, software updates (auto download if on AC). Option in Power Saver apps to turn on or off. May require SMC update.

OS X Recovery

AirPlay in MtnLion

OS X Utilities - Recovery Partition
-- Restore from Time Machine
-- Reinstall OS X (non-destructive for user data)
-- Get online help with Safari (Can connect via ip)
-- Disk Utility (Repair/Erase Disk)

Reset passwords via Terminal: resetpassword

Firmware Password Utility - Can only boot from internal drive, disallow startup keyboard commands. No way to defeat the firmware password. Do not know the procedure for repair/replacement - most likely cost involved. Need to set this before students set if for you!! Do *NOT* lose the password!

Option-Key gives boot options
Command-R/Command-Option-R (Internet) - boot options
--WPA/WPA-2 only, WEP not supported

In recovery mode. Utilities, Terminal, resetpassword, Choose Drive, select account, set pw
>> reset home folder permissions and ACLs (like when Angela's perms hosed)

Repair permissions in disk utility does not affect user files, just system files and applications.

Recovery is a hidden partition (~650 MB), Command-R from boot, Required for File Vault 2

Recovery HD Limitations (will not work)
-- Software/Hardware RAID (Create sys recovery thumb drive) HT4886/HT4848
-- Custom boot camp after the fact
-- System disk replacement/reformat
-- improper imaging

Internet Recovery - after mid 2010, option for internet recovery
-- Firmware update may be required for pre-mid2011
-- Automatic if local Recovery HD missing
-- Option-Command-R
(Watch number of hops!)
-- Installs Recovery HD so you can then reinstall the OS

RAID - Check box for autorebuild after replacing drive!

Use Recovery Disk Assistant to create Recovery HD (1 GB Flash drive)

Full OS X Recovery
-- Minimum 8GB disk
-- GPT partition with Mac OS volume
-- Includes OS X installation assets
-- InstallESD.dmg from inside MountainLion.app
-- (Exercise 4.3 in book)
-- Can use Restore feature in Disk Utility

OS X Software Updates

Startup, Shutdown, Sleep

Push button - hear chime POST passed
-- see chart for tones

Hardware, Firmware, Software
System launchd

User Session
User launchd
Use environment

POST - Hear the 'bong,' all is good here

Booter - loads core kernel
Hold N key for net boot (globe icon)
Folder with ? = no drive or no boot drive found

Spinning gear - kernel is loading

launchd after spinning gear: loginwindow process starts
-- Can cause startup problems
-- /Library/StartupItems (deprecated, suspect anything in here)
-- /Library LaunchDaemons

-- finder, dock, login items
-- freeze at desktop, startup item/login itme most likely issue

Safe Boot enabled by holding SHIFT at boot up
check the areas above for recently installed/changed files

From login window forward is config issue. Before login window, could be OS issue.

Logout - option to save windows

Startup Shortcuts - HT1533 -
C - boot optical
D - Diagnostic disc or ROM
Command-Option-D - Hardware test via Internet
N - NetBoot
Option-N - Start from default NetBoot image
Command-R - Start up OS X Recovery
Command-Option-R - Recovery from Internet
T - target disc mode - Firewire, Thunderbolt, no usb
Command-Option-P-R - Reset NVRAM settings
Eject, f12, Primary Click Button = Eject removable media/optical

Shift = Safe Boot
Command-V = Verbose Mode (not interactive, just see what's happening)
Command-S = Single-User Mode (no gui, just unix commands)

FileVault 2 disables the three OS X startup modifiers above

Safe Boot
System Volume Repair - progress bar on screen
Clears KEXT caches
Clear Font caches

Bypasses unnecessary kernel extensions (no usb, no bluetooth, etc)
Non-System LaunchDaemons
User Fonts (/Library/Fonts)
Auto login/login items
Apps left open at last logout
Quartz Extreme (AirPlay)

If freeze at desktop, most likely a login item issue. Safe Boot can get you in to hit the "-" button to remove.

Finder > Preferences > Show These Items > Hard Drives

/System/Library/StartUpItems (Delete anything in here)
Hold OPTION-Go to see Library
..or Go To Folder ~/Library/

MountainLionTweaks - enables cool stuff!

VerboseMode = Command-V
Command-Option-P-R if computer always boots in verbose mode! *KNOW*!

Command-s = Single-User

User Accounts and Permissions
Admin is first account
--File system changes
-- Can create other users/admin accts

Standard Users
-- Safest Option
-- Member of Staff
-- Cannot make system changes
-- Should set yourself as a standard user, ust use admin when needed

Guest (turn on or off, local or network)
-- Enabled for file sharing
-- Automatically deleted home folder when they logout
-- Admin cannot create a guest account

Sharing only
-- Created for file sharing
-- No home folder, no local login
-- Network-only access

Managed w/Parental Controls
-- Standard w/ Parental Controls

Can create Groups on local machine
-- Assign access to certain folders to that group
-- Useful for multiple sharing-only accounts

System Prefs > Sharing

Control-Click (Right-click) the User Account - Advanced Options
-- Add alias such as married name

Login Options
-- Auto Login
-- Require username/password
-- Hide shutdown on login screen
-- Password Hints
-- Fast user switching
-- VoiceOver in Login
-- Join server/AD

Fast User Switching Resource contentions/Security issues

User Home Folders
Desktop, Documents, Downloads, Movies, Music, Pictures, Public
Hidden: Library, Sites (deprecated)
If user has Applications folder in their home folder, it will get installed in that user's folder if the user puts it there

Account Deletion
-- Click "-" to delete
--- Save home folder in a disk image (in Deleted Users folder in Users folder)
--- Don't change home folder (remains in the Users folder)
--- Delete home folder (option to do so securely)

Migration Assistant
-- Utilities folder
-- Migrates user homes, apps, resources, some settings

Migration Sources:
-- Mac via network or Target Disk
-- Time Machine backups
-- Windows XP or later via network

Manual Migration
-- Rename home folder exacyly match new account name
-- Move home folder to /Users
-- Create new account in Users & Groups

System Security
-- Password Assistant (Key icon next to "new password" )

Password Types
User Account
-- Can be different than User password
Master Passwords
-- Allows reset local account passwords
-- Does not reset keychain password
-- Security & Privacy or Users & Groups preferences

Password Changes
-- User-initiated, everything stays in sync
-- Admin initiates, keychain is broken and prompt for new password
---- User will have to resave the passwords again.

"Can't log in"
-- Verify correct password

"Keychain Errors"
-- Reset login keychain

"Problem when I..."
-- Login as different user

"Something is in use"
-- Fast user switching

"Can't change setting..."
-- Not admin

Security and Privacy (Allow apps from apple only, anywhere, etc)
Per User
-- PW reset
-- Require PW timing

Admin only
-- Lock message
-- Gatekeeper
-- Advanced (auto update safe list, require admin pw to access locked prefs, etc)

-- Location Services
-- Contacts
-- Internet Access

Admin Only
-- Enable location services
-- Enable diag/usage

Find My Mac
-- Enabled with iCloud Prefs
-- One iCloud account per device
-- Lock and Erase require Recovery HD

Keychain Management
-- User "login" keychain
--- Created by default for each other
--- Synced with user's account password
--- ~/Library/Keychains/login.keychain
-- Shared System Keychain
-- Managed by Admin

Show Keychain prefs in menu bar (keychain menu)
-- Use keychain first aid to repair keychains when problem though pw is correct


chown and chmod - can use batchmod - instead use the password reset utility to fix permissions

Anything in shared is visible to anyone on computer.
Users cannot see each other's files/folders

Get Info - see permissions
Click "+" to add permissions

Every file/folder has permissions

Access deleted user's folder:
-- Add new user to folder
-- Make new user the owner (me)
-- Give read/write privs
-- Apply to enclosed items

Owner can lock a file. Only owner can edit. Copies are locked.
-- Can't access a file? Locked? Yes/no. Read? Folder perms, file perms...

Disk Utility
-- Highlight disk, First Aid, Repair Disk Permissions
-- System and Apps level but not from DMG files

File System and Storage
Disks and Partitions/Volumes

-- GUID partition table for Intel (GPT - Can be read by Win7 maybe)
-- Apple Partition Map (APM) - PowerPC
-- MBR - Master Boot Record

Most common formats:
-- Mac OS Extended (Journaled)
-- Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Encrypted)
-- Mac OS Extended
-- MS DOS File System (FAT32, ExFAT)
-- NT File System (NTFS)* Read only

Case-Sensitivity format
-- Folders with same name, but different capitalization

Live Partitioning while device is active

Destructive Partitioning - erases everything on device

-- Fastest, quick erase
-- 3-pass erase
-- 7-pass erase
-- Can erase just free space

Encrypt a disk
-- Without disk utility (GUID, Extended Journaled, add password hint)
-- From Finder, right click on drive
-- Great for Flash Drives

Secure Empty Trash
-- 7-pass erase on trash

Unmounting and Ejecting
-- Eject severs connection with device (unmounts and disconnects)
-- Unmount just unmounts, but leaves the device connected.

Reset smc ht3964
Shift control option

Monday- Mac Hardware

all-spec.com for esd-safe equipment
-- screw boxes
-- mats
-- anti-esd bags (shielded)

Mat, ground cable, wrist strap, ground polarity tester

Can attach ground wire to unused power cable ground post

Kernel Panic - on startup or during operation (gray screen with error text)
-- Could be hardware or software
---- Eliminate software causes first, peripherals, third party, etc.

Picture of ports, identify ports (firewire, power port, usb, thunderbolt, hdmi)

Public Reference Section and GSX (Tech only)

Public: support.apple.com, KBase Articles, Discussions/Communities, Spec Database, etc

Product Serial Number - key to success! Applecare Name and the Warranty Status
-- Applecare Name is official model name of the mac (About this mac, more info)

GSX.apple.com - school applies for and gets ssa account

Machine screw vs self-tapping screw
-- Machine screw goes into matching sheath

Self-tapping screw makes its own threads (usually external screws/plastic)

Use the right driver, do not over tighten - flush with surface. hand tools, not power tools

JST connectors - very lowprofile, insert straight down. Nylon probe tool under wire, lift straight up on connector.

iMac Tools
Mac Mini
General questions about tools
-- Pentalobe tools, bottom cases for MacBook Airs

Hardware Theory
- Fix it quickly, fix it correctly (the first time)

Steps: Evaluate, Isolate, Resolve

--Keep notes
--Consult Resources (Apple support, GSX, Google, Repair Manuals, Diags, colleague, etc)
--Consider human factors - mistakes the tech can make - when to take a break

Order of Elimination:
-- User Issue (config issues, fonts, try another user account)
-- Software Related (application-specific)
-- OS-Related (all apps? recovery HD or boot from clean OS)
-- Hardware (makes noise, still doesn't work)

Page 10 in workbook
- Gather info from user: When did it break? Has it ever worked? Is anything broken? How do you think it should work?
- Determine System State, Save the System Information
- Can you replicate the problem? AST, if available.
- Quick Fixes
--- Things that don't change the system: Reboot, reseat, log in as diff user
--- Slightly invasive: SMC reset, boot into recovery HD and repair disk
Run Diags
--- Recovery HD/Disk Utility
--- Network Utility

--- GSX
--- Service Manual
--- Troubleshooting

Systematic Fault Isolation
--- Unplug peripherals
--- Systematically kill processes
--- Safe Boot (Hold shift on boot)
--- Single-user mode (Command-S on boot)
--- Split-half search, keep cutting suspects in half until reach possible suspects


Verify the Repair
--- After the fix, does it work? Does anything still not work?
----- Make sure original problem is fixed
----- Make sure we did not introduce anything
----- Make sure no other issues

Inform User
--- General description of how you fixed it.

--- What to watch in the future

Another approach to troubleshooting
Isolate problem into 'spaces.'

--- Device Problem
----- Hardware
------- AST, ADT, AHT, etc
----- Software
------- OS
--------- Recovery HD, Safe Boot, External Drive
------- User Data
--------- Other user, Library files (ex Fonts)

--- Not the device
----- Educational Opportunity (Show customer how to operate the device)
----- Environmental Issue (network, peripheral, power, dust, etc)
------- Observe/ask the end user
------- Have customer demonstrate the issue

Component Fault Isolation / Systematic Fault Isolation on Hardware
-- Power?? Fan spinning, LED lights, key lights, caps lock,

1. Power flow and signal flow - is power flowing? Is signal flowing to display etc?
2. Minimal system - bare required for POST
--- AC Source
--- Outlet, Power cord, power supply, main logic board (cpu, ram, expansion cards, speaker, wifi, bluetooth, usb, firewire, thunderbolt, keyboard, mouse, video, hard drive/ssd, optical)
--- Watch for led indicators or sounds
--- Eliminate everything not needed - disconnect it from the logic board if necessary. Add each item back one at a time until you find the problem.
--- Ex: Computer would not burn DVDs. Different media. Boot from other media. Replace ribbon cable. Replace drive. Replace logic board. All peripherals removed. Added video, kb, mouse. Dvd burns. Add items back in, isolated problem - turned out to be bluetooth board issue.
--- Ex: MacBook wouldn't power up after assembly. Disconnect to minimal. Check manual, short pins. Starts up. Put case on. No Start. Power button worn out.

--- Ex: iMac older style. Display has video cable. Cable lcd temp sensor cable. Screw through the cable.

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